IEA-IA-HEV Annex XI - Electric Cycles


The International Energy Agency (IEA) is an autonomous body which was established in November 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

The IEA headquarters are in Paris, France, and it carries out a comprehensive program of energy cooperation among twenty six of the OECD's thirty member countries. At its inception, the work of the IEA concentrated on issues related to oil, but since that time the Agency has broadened its work to include virtually all energy issues. An important objective of the IEA is to encourage the increased deployment of renewable energies, and to collaborate on research and development in this area.

The IEA provides support for over 40 international co-operation and collaboration agreements in energy technology R&D, deployment and information dissemination. The objective of the Implementing Agreement on Hybrid and Electric Vehicles is to help hybrid and electric vehicle technologies reach their full market potential, with attendant advantages for diversification of energy supplies and environmental protection.

In this context, the Implementing Agreement pointed out that Electric Cycles, namely power assisted bicycles and electric scooters, have a considerable potential as a sustainable means of transport in urban areas. Compared to cars and conventional motorcycles, they cause no pollution, the make no noise, and they require very little space. Favourable political conditions such as legislation, technology research, demonstration projects, information campaigns, public charging stations and financial incentives are important for a quick and successful market introduction.

A specific "Annexe", which is, in the terms of the Agreement, a work on a particular topics within the overall subject of the Agreement has been set up to specifically deal with Electric Cycles.


The overall objective is to identify barriers which hindered the market penetration until now and to develop and to test ways to overcome them. In this coordinated action, a wide range of synergies can be achieved.

The following list shows the key questions which will be subject of the Subtasks to be undertaken in this Annex:

- Assessing the role that electric cycles can play in improving urban mobility, and their interaction with other transportation modes,

- Identifying energy saving potentials in various countries as justification of governmental support,

- Recommending market introduction strategies directed at manufacturers, importers, and dealers, as well as to authorities at all levels,

- Identifying required technology improvements for different markets,

- Identifying infrastructure requirements,

- Sharing experience and information obtained from on-going and completed projects (extended dissemination).


The Team composing the Annex is composed by the following partners.

- AVERE (BE), the European Association for Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (Operating Agent); Frederic Vergels

- CycleElectric (USA), an international consulting group for the developing, selling and serviceing electric two wheelers; Ed Benjamin

- ITRI (TW), the Taiwanese Industrial Technology Research Institute, a non-profit R&D organization engaging in applied research and technical service; Bing-Ming Lin

- NewRide (CH), the Swiss association for the promotion of electric two wheelers; Urs Schwegler

- Tokyo R&D (JP), a company specialized in research, planning, styling design, engineering design, prototype making, and evaluation of various kinds of vehicles; Masao Ono

- Arsenal Research (AT), an entreprise of the Austrian research centres specialised in the Business field of Energy and Drive Technologies; Margit Noll

Structure of Annex XI

The work is subdivided in the five Subtasks having well defined role to fulfil.

- Subtask 1: Energy Saving and Market Potentials

- Inventory on vehicles (market offer and prototypes)

- Successful application fields

- Benefits of electric cycles for users and the public

- Success factors regarding market introduction

- Justification of governmental support

- Subtask 2: Market Introduction

- Analysis of the role of market actors in different countries

- Recommendations for national and local governments as well as for manufacturers, importers and dealers regarding collaboration in market introduction

- Promising networks for the market introduction of electric cycles

- Subtask 3: Technology Improvements

- State of the art of vehicle technology

- Requirements on electric and hybrid drive systems for two wheelers in different market fields

- Subtask 4: Infrastructure

- Public charging infrastructure for electric scooters

- Safe parking places and preferred parking facilities for electric cycles

- Subtask 5: Sharing Experience

- Implementation and coordination of sharing experience

- Technical visits

Work progress

Four meetings of the group have already taken place.

The kick-off meeting was held in Taiwan, on 10th-11th March 2006 in conjunction with the LEV conference, an excellent opportunity to inform the related exerts of the IEA-IA Annex XI work as well as a sharing experience and to organise a Technical visit of the show.

The 1st progress meeting was held in Paris, on 13th June 2006, just after the Bibendum challenge that took place in Paris from 8th to 12th June 2006. This was a unique opportunity to discuss items related to clean vehicles and to test and drive the latest battery, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles. The presence of two-wheelers was important and that they attracted lot of the public’s attention, especially during the parade held at the champ de Mars, just under the Eiffel Tower.

The 2nd Progress meeting was organised in Tokyo, on 24th October 2006, just before EVS-22, the 22nd Worldwide International Battery, hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exhibition that took place from 25th to 28th October 2006 in Yokohama, Japan. Many different light EVs participated in EVS-22 ride and drive, so illustrating the growing importance of urban mobility and confirming that electric bicycles and scooters will have a critical role to play in the future.

The 3rd Progress meeting took place in Hsinchu, Taiwan, on 24th March 2007 and was, as the kick off, held just after the LEV conference.

The 4th Progress meeting took place in Chiasso, Switzerland, on 9th November 2007. See APPENDIX IV for a detailed report. This was preceded by a guided tour, gathering about 20 dealers gathered under the umbrella of NewRide, of the EICMA Milan two-wheelers trade show as well as a visit to the InfoVel project.

The next IEA-IA-Annex XI will be the workshop to be held on 11.3.2008 from 14.00 to 16.00 on the occasion of IAMF & EET-2008.

The aim is to prepare phase II of Annex XI that will be pariuarly devoted toSandardiastion & safety issues.

Interested parties to participate n his event should contact AVERE.